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Maryland's National Register Properties



Photo credit: MHT Files, n.d.
Crampton's Gap Historic District
Inventory No.: F-4-17-A, WA-III-176
Date Listed: 1/12/2011
Location: Burkittsville, , Frederick County, Washington County
Category: District
Period/Date of Construction: September 14, 1862
Resources: 230 (48 contributing, 156 non-contributing)
Description: During the September 14, 1862 Battle of South Mountain the secondary push of Union troops took place over the road leading over the mountain at Crampton's Gap and the adjoining woodlots and fields. The area was predominantly rural during the Civil War; the town of Burkittsville was the largest town in the area. Many of the farms, houses, and outbuildings are still scattered throughout the landscape, although a few post-Civil War homes can be found in small pockets along some of the main roads. Dwellings built prior to the Civil War primarily consist of small log houses with German siding and equally small domestic and agricultural outbuildings which include some very small bank barns, summer kitchens, smokehouses, springhouses, chicken houses, corn cribs, etc. These smaller houses are found predominantly on the steep slopes of South Mountain. One can still see the contrast of these smaller subsistence farms as compared with larger scale farms reflected in the bigger buildings in the valley area just east of the mountain. Other houses in the Crampton's Gap Historic District include early to mid-19th century two-story stone houses and two-story brick houses. One of the larger houses belonging to Martin Shafer (1606 Gapland/Huffer Road) served as Union General William B. Franklin's headquarters during the battle. The Resurrection German Reformed Church in Burkittsville as well as many houses in town served as hospitals for Union and Confederate wounded during the battle and for months afterward. Stone walls were also part of the South Mountain landscape. Farmers constructed the dry-laid stone walls of local rock to delineate the boundaries of their fields and contain livestock. Both Confederate and Union soldiers used the walls for defense during the battle, and the walls were important in the Confederates' hold of the mountain for the better part of the day. Many of these stone walls are still in place over much of the battlefield. Many present-day roads and paths traversing the district landscape were in existence before the battle. A few of the old roads are still unpaved or exist only as trails or traces through the woods, however, the majority of the roads have been paved and are currently in use. Most historic roads appear to closely follow their original routes across the battlefield landscape. Significance: The Crampton's Gap Historic District is historically significant for its association with the Battle of South Mountain on September 14, 1862. The most southern point of fighting that day took place on the fields and roads leading up to Crampton's Gap near Burkittsville. Here, after hours of preparation, Union General William Franklin and his VI Corps forced the evening reatreat of the heavily outnumbered Confederate forces. But Franklin's delay allowed the Confederates at Harpers Ferry their victory and capture of the Union garrison there. The Battle of South Mountain was significant in that on September 14, 1862, only three days prior to the Battle of Antietam at nearby Sharpsburg, a small number of Confederates briefly held off Union troops in order for Lee's divided army to reassemble. The major day-long battle took place in response to the loss of Confederate General Robert E. Lee's Special Order 191, his command to split the Southern army in order to capture the Union garrison at Harper's Ferry and its supply of weapons and ammunition. The discovery of those orders prompted Union General George McClellan's uncharacteristic boldness in his pursuit of the Confederate Army on South Mountain.

District Resources (230) (48 contributing, 156 non-contributing)

From associated listing in National Register nomination form. C = Contributing, NC = non-contributing, blank = not evaluated.

AddressStatusResource Name and MIHP (if any)
6030 Gapland RoadC 
6022 Mountain Church RoadC 
6000B Gapland RoadC 
6000A Gapland RoadC 
6218(?) Mountain Church RoadC 
West side of Mountain Church Road.C 
65?? Mountain Church Road (West side)C 
1029 Arnoldtown RoadC 
1038 Arnoldtown RoadC 
1059 Arnoldtown RoadC 
1606 Gapland/Huffer RoadCShafer-Motherway House
5542 Burkittsville RoadC 
5526 Burkittsville RoadC 
5341 Burkittsville RoadC 
5331 Burkittsville RoadC 
 CF-4-17-A -- Crampton's Gap battlefield
Gapland RoadCF-2-100 -- Burkittsville Road (Gapland Road)
Mountain Church RoadC 
Arnoldtown RoadC 
Burkittsville RoadC 
Brownsville Pass RoadC 
Village on Burkittsville Road, east side of South MountainCF-2-10 -- Burkittsville Historic District
6710 Mountain Church RoadC 
Mountain Church RoadCF-2-99 -- Stone Walls and Mountain Church
6030 Gapland RoadC 
6022 Mountain Church RoadC 
6000B Gapland RoadC 
6000A Gapland RoadC 
6218(?) Mountain Church RoadC 
1059 Arnoldtown RoadC 
West side of Mountain Church Road.C 
65?? Mountain Church Road (West side)C 
1029 Arnoldtown RoadC 
1038 Arnoldtown RoadC 
1606 Gapland/Huffer RoadCShafer-Motherway House
5542 Burkittsville RoadC 
5526 Burkittsville RoadC 
5341 Burkittsville RoadC 
5331 Burkittsville RoadC 
6710 Mountain Church RoadC 
Mountain Church RoadCF-2-99 -- Stone Walls and Mountain Church
 CF-4-17-A -- Crampton's Gap battlefield
Gapland RoadCF-2-100 -- Burkittsville Road (Gapland Road)
Mountain Church RoadC 
Arnoldtown RoadC 
Burkittsville RoadC 
Brownsville Pass RoadC 
Village on Burkittsville Road, east side of South MountainCF-2-10 -- Burkittsville Historic District
NE Corner Gapland Rd & Townsend RdNC 
Gapland Road & Townsend RoadNCWA-III-123 -- Gapland Turnpike Toll House, also Van Gilder Pottery (Toll House Gallery)
20719 Townsend RoadNC 
20735 Townsend RoadNC 
20716(?) Townsend RoadNC 
20809(?) Townsend RoadNC 
20807 Townsend RoadNC 
20819 Townsend RoadNC 
Gapland Road at Crampton's GapNCWA-III-038 -- Gathland State Park
Gapland Road in Gathland State ParkNCWA-III-117 -- War Correspondent's Memorial Arch
5800B Brownsville Pass RoadNC 
6622 Mountain Church RoadNC 
6006 Highway 17NC 
5325 Burkittsville RoadNC 
5319 Burkittsville RoadNC 
5309 Burkittsville RoadNC 
5506A Burkittsville RoadNC 
5506B Burkittsville RoadNC 
5426 Burkittsville RoadNC 
5420 Burkittsville RoadNC 
5414 Burkittsville RoadNC 
5406 Burkittsville RoadNC 
5402 Burkittsville RoadNC 
1519 Gapland RoadNC 
5533 Gapland RoadNCF-2-101 -- Claire Shisler Property (Haley Farm)
NW corner of Brownsville Pass Road and Burkittsville RoadNC 
5636 Burkittsville RoadNC 
5630 Burkittsville RoadNC 
5614 Burkittsville RoadNC 
5605 Burkittsville RoadNCDistillery Springs Farm
5606 Burkittsville RoadNC 
1044 Arnoldtown RoadNC 
1053 Arnoldtown RoadNC 
1055 Arnoldtown RoadNC 
6500 Mountain Church RoadNC 
650(?) Mountain Church RoadNC 
6507 Mountain Church RoadNC 
6718 Mountain Church RoadNC 
65?? Mountain Church Road (West Side)NC 
6518 Mountain Church RoadNC 
6124 Mountain Church RoadNC 
105? Arnoldtown RoadNC 
105? Arnoldtown RoadNC 
1054 Arnoldtown RoadNC 
1056? (south of 1054) Arnoldtown RoadNC 
1095 Arnoldtown RoadNC 
6608 Mountain Church RoadNC 
1109 Arnoldtown RoadNC 
1113 Arnoldtown RoadNC 
6605 Mountain Church RoadNC 
6614 Mountain Church RoadNC 
20812 Gapland RoadNC 
20808 Gapland RoadNC 
20752 Gapland RoadNC 
1131 Arnoldtown RoadNC 
1133 Arnoldtown RoadNC 
6624 Mountain Church RoadNC 
6619 Mountain Church RoadNC 
6621 Mountain Church RoadNC 
6630 Mountain Church RoadNC 
6636 Mountain Church RoadNC 
6100 Mountain Church RoadNC 
6104 Mountain Church RoadNC 
6114 Mountain Church RoadNC 
Mountain Church RoadNC 
6118 Mountain Church RoadNC 
6203 Mountain Church RoadNC 
6203B Mountain Church RoadNC 
6038 Mountain Church RoadNC 
6040 Mountain Church RoadNC 
6025 Gapland RoadNC 
6019 Gapland RoadNC 
West Side Gapland RoadNC 
Off E side Gapland RoadNC 
5800B Brownsville Pass RoadNC 
6622 Mountain Church RoadNC 
6006 Highway 17NC 
 NCCrampton's Gap Shelter
 NCCrampton's Gap Outhouse
East side of Gapland RoadNCEast side of Gapland Road
Gapland RoadNCF-2-55 -- Ceres Bethel African Methodist Episcopal Church & Cemetery
NE Corner Gapland Rd & Townsend RdNC 
Gapland Road & Townsend RoadNCWA-III-123 -- Gapland Turnpike Toll House, also Van Gilder Pottery (Toll House Gallery)
20719 Townsend RoadNC 
20735 Townsend RoadNC 
20716(?) Townsend RoadNC 
20809(?) Townsend RoadNC 
20807 Townsend RoadNC 
20819 Townsend RoadNC 
Gapland Road at Crampton's GapNCWA-III-038 -- Gathland State Park
Gapland Road in Gathland State ParkNCWA-III-117 -- War Correspondent's Memorial Arch
5325 Burkittsville RoadNC 
5319 Burkittsville RoadNC 
5309 Burkittsville RoadNC 
NW corner of Brownsville Pass Road and Burkittsville RoadNC 
5636 Burkittsville RoadNC 
5630 Burkittsville RoadNC 
5614 Burkittsville RoadNC 
5605 Burkittsville RoadNCDistillery Springs Farm
5606 Burkittsville RoadNC 
5506A Burkittsville RoadNC 
5506B Burkittsville RoadNC 
5426 Burkittsville RoadNC 
5420 Burkittsville RoadNC 
5414 Burkittsville RoadNC 
5406 Burkittsville RoadNC 
5402 Burkittsville RoadNC 
1519 Gapland RoadNC 
5533 Gapland RoadNCF-2-101 -- Claire Shisler Property (Haley Farm)
6500 Mountain Church RoadNC 
650(?) Mountain Church RoadNC 
6507 Mountain Church RoadNC 
6718 Mountain Church RoadNC 
105? Arnoldtown RoadNC 
105? Arnoldtown RoadNC 
1054 Arnoldtown RoadNC 
1056? (south of 1054) Arnoldtown RoadNC 
1095 Arnoldtown RoadNC 
6608 Mountain Church RoadNC 
1109 Arnoldtown RoadNC 
1113 Arnoldtown RoadNC 
6605 Mountain Church RoadNC 
6614 Mountain Church RoadNC 
20812 Gapland RoadNC 
20808 Gapland RoadNC 
20752 Gapland RoadNC 
1131 Arnoldtown RoadNC 
1133 Arnoldtown RoadNC 
6624 Mountain Church RoadNC 
6619 Mountain Church RoadNC 
6621 Mountain Church RoadNC 
6630 Mountain Church RoadNC 
6636 Mountain Church RoadNC 
1044 Arnoldtown RoadNC 
1053 Arnoldtown RoadNC 
1055 Arnoldtown RoadNC 
65?? Mountain Church Road (West Side)NC 
6518 Mountain Church RoadNC 
6124 Mountain Church RoadNC 
6038 Mountain Church RoadNC 
6040 Mountain Church RoadNC 
6100 Mountain Church RoadNC 
6104 Mountain Church RoadNC 
6114 Mountain Church RoadNC 
Mountain Church RoadNC 
6118 Mountain Church RoadNC 
6203 Mountain Church RoadNC 
6203B Mountain Church RoadNC 
6025 Gapland RoadNC 
6019 Gapland RoadNC 
West Side Gapland RoadNC 
Off E side Gapland RoadNC 
 NCCrampton's Gap Shelter
 NCCrampton's Gap Outhouse
East side of Gapland RoadNCEast side of Gapland Road
Gapland RoadNCF-2-55 -- Ceres Bethel African Methodist Episcopal Church & Cemetery
6229 Mountain Church RoadC/NCF-2-88 -- Miller Farmstead (Forest)
6319 Mountain Church RoadC/NCF-2-97 -- G. Whipp (Whip) Farm (Char-Mar Farm)
W. side Mountain Church RoadC/NC 
6220 Mountain Church RoadC/NCF-2-98 -- Widow Tritt House
Mountain Church RoadC/NC 
6638 Mountain Church RoadC/NC 
6042 Mountain Church RoadC/NC 
5723 Burkittsville RoadC/NC 
6220 Mountain Church RoadC/NCF-2-98 -- Widow Tritt House
Mountain Church RoadC/NC 
6638 Mountain Church RoadC/NC 
6229 Mountain Church RoadC/NCF-2-88 -- Miller Farmstead (Forest)
6319 Mountain Church RoadC/NCF-2-97 -- G. Whipp (Whip) Farm (Char-Mar Farm)
W. side Mountain Church RoadC/NC 
6042 Mountain Church RoadC/NC 
5723 Burkittsville RoadC/NC 
1095 Arnoldtown Road  
208-210 E. Main Street  
108 Gapland Farm F-2-96 -- Arnold Farm
Gapland Road F-2-107 -- Resurrection Reformed Church
6041 Mountain Church Road  
208-210 E. Main Street  
108 Gapland Farm F-2-96 -- Arnold Farm
Gapland Road F-2-107 -- Resurrection Reformed Church
1095 Arnoldtown Road  
6041 Mountain Church Road  

 

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